This webpage FOR WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY_2016 created on 25th May 2016.           TOP of Page
Counter below set zero on 5th June 2016:

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A download from  LYCOS network
A 6 mins audio file -click on link below:
Composer Wolfgang Amedeos Mozart: "Eine Kleine Nacht Music"

A [3min 42 sec] VIDEO RECORDING of from DD SHILLONG on 4th June 2016 at 5:20PM;
The artist: ZAREEN

Video above:- dd-shg-4june2016-2.mp4
Another video file (of ZAREEN) [4min 36sec] -click on link below:
VIDEO RECORDING from DD SHILLONG on 4th June 2016 at 5:20PM


A 1min 21secs VIDEO RECORDING at the picnic spot  MARNGAR LAKE  near Nongpoh
(about 50 KMs from NEHU Campus, Shillong)
on 28th May 2016 PICNIC Deptt of Chemistry   Video by Dr.S.Aravamudhan

The webpage for the environemental day 2015 is at:

Full article on:-  Life-and-Gravity.pdf
Article by Aravamudhan

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It is by inquiring about the phenomena occurring in the surroundings that scientists discover the natural laws that control happenings on earth. The early mention of the Natural Philosopher sir Isaac Newton to school children is by narrating the incidence of an Apple falling which is supposed to have made the scientist to deliberate on gravitational field and formulate the three laws of motion. When apple falls and so easily in people’s hand the first response would be to consider it fortunate to have the apple fall and easily available to eat and consume. And, to keep on considering this phenomenon as to why it falls seems counter intuitive from the point of view of science and its benefits. If it did not fall towards the ground, then it would be matter of concern how to make acquisition of apple easier. But really even in the prevailing happy situation of apple falling towards the ground, if it falls on the head, it would hurt and for that matter anything heavy that falls unexpectedly can be hurting if it happens to fall on people. This thought should definitely make humans be concerned on this uncontrolled deterministic trend of objects falling downwards to the ground.

Then the natural query is about the plant growths; the roots growing downwards and the stems growing upwards against gravity. It is a more familiar topic discussed as to how birds sense directions to be able to maintain seasonal migratory trends. It is considered that the birds have mechanisms which are related to the geomagnetism and leads finally to sensing direction. But the question of plant growth against gravity, is much less prevalent. While growing new plants and insisting on the necessity grow more plants from the point of view environmental conduciveness, more people should have started enquiring about how the gravitational field determines the responses during plant growth. However, there has been documentation on Phototropism and Geotropism (Gravitropism) since much earlier days than the days currently when the environmental concerns have grown in magnitude. Actually discuss the subject matter of Life and Gravity is not a matter of one page content, but in a single page enough emphasis can be made as to the fact that students of science should be getting to know more about the facts on the plant responses to gravity while maintaining cleanliness and insisting on making and maintain environment green.

    Pandit Vidyasagar , Sagar Jagtap, Amit Nirhali, Santosh Bhaskaran and Vishakha Hase, "Effects of hypergravity on the chlorophyll
     content and growth of root and shoot during development in rice plants", In: J.F. Allen, E. Gantt, J.H. Golbeck & B. Osmond (eds.),
     Photosynthesis. Energy from the Sun: 14t h International Congress on Photosynthesis, Springer, 2008, 1597–1600

    Santosh Bhaskaran, Sagar S. Jagtap and Pandit B. Vidyasagar , Life-and-Gravity.pdf , Biophysics : Reviews and Letters, 4(4): 299-318, 2009
     Biologists identify chemicals affecting plant growth in response to gravity

NEHU Campus View

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on 6th June 2016 at Deptt of Chemistry, NEHU to mark the World Environment Day 2016
NEHU Campus View

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Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungus in response to gravity. It is a general feature of all higher and many lower plants as well as other organisms. Charles Darwin was one of the first to scientifically document that roots show positive gravitropism and stems show negative gravitropism. That is, roots grow in the direction of gravitational pull (i.e., downward) and stems grow in the opposite direction (i.e., upwards). This behavior can be easily demonstrated with any potted plant. When laid onto its side, the growing parts of the stem begin to display negative gravitropism, growing (biologists say, turning; see tropism) upwards. Herbaceous (non-woody) stems are capable of a small degree of actual bending, but most of the redirected movement occurs as a consequence of root or stem growth outside.
Example of Gravitropism in the remains of a cellar of a
Roman villa in the Archeologic Park in Baia, Italy

Differential sensitivity:
Gravitropism is an integral part of plant growth, orienting its position to maximize contact with sunlight, as well as ensuring that the roots are growing in the correct direction. Growth due to gravitropism is mediated by changes in concentration of the plant hormone auxin within plant cells.
Differential sensitivity to auxin helps explain Darwin's original observation that stems and roots respond in the opposite way to the forces of gravity. In both roots and stems, auxin accumulates towards the gravity vector on the lower side. In roots, this results in the inhibition of cell expansion on the lower side and the concomitant curvature of the roots towards gravity (positive gravitropism). In stems, the auxin also accumulates on the lower side, however in this tissue it increases cell expansion and results in the shoot curving up (statolithic gravitropism).
Upward growth of plant parts, against gravity, is called "negative gravitropism", and downward growth of roots is called "positive gravitropism".
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